The book of the Dead (c. 4000-1500 B.C.) was in general use before the rule of the first pharaohs of the First Dynasty (c. 3200-300 B.C.) and it is probably older than the historical period of the Ancient Egypt. The Book of the Dead combines a diversified selection from a large assembly of religious texts, hymns, litanies, poems, and songs. This collection is a dedicated attempt from Egyptians to avoid oblivion, to them the worst of all fates. So, their religious doctrines were all centered in the resurrection of the physical bodies and the continuation of their old lives. Because for them, life is too short, and the real life is after death, and for that purpose, we all should be ready for the life beyond. The collection of prayers and incantations and magic spells, provide guidance for the deceased, when he finds himself in the other world, full of dangers, to find food and water until he finds himself in front of Osiris and the forty-two judges.

The most famous scene, the formal judgment, as described in Number 125 (see video below). Osiris, the king of the death, weigh the heart of the dead in a balance against an ostrich feather, the symbol of Maat, goddess of right and truth. After the judgment, the good one spends immortality in feasting, conversation, games, singing, while the bad one, the evildoer, is immediately devoured by a monster with the body of a hippopotamus and the head and jaws of a crocodile, opening its mouse incommensurably wide.