The Chinese were, in general, aloof to the material progress. For this reason their most important discoveries and inventions lack scientific spirit and were not applied to useful purposes. Despite the most notable knowledge obtained in several areas, geometry, geography, astronomy, arquelogy, they rarely wrote scientific treatises, also because their emperors rarely were interested on them, and above all they were despised by the scholars. They are known to be the inventors of gunpowder, the compass, the paper, and the press. The oldest newspaper in the world is the Beijing Gazette.